Adrian Loveridge’s Traitor and Criminal Ancestors Sold As Slaves In Barbados?

Click The Photo To View & Search The Lists Of Rebels Transported To Barbadoes And Other Places

Click The Photo To View & Search The Lists Of Rebels Transported To Barbadoes And Other Places

8 July 1685. The following convicted before Chief Justice Jefferies at the Court of Oyer and Terminer for Dorset, Somerset and Devon for waging war against the King and sentenced to be transported to the Americas [sentence enrolled on 4 February 1691]… Bernard Loveridge

The following shipped on the Jamaica Merchant on 9 December 1685 for Barbados, landed and sold there in March 1686: … Luke Porter, aged 20, shoemaker; Edward Kent, aged 19; Bernard Loveridge, aged 23, soap boiler; Silvester Poole, aged 24, butcher; John Godsall, aged 27, butcher;… (from Roots Web link here)

One Receipt for one hundred Prisoners to be transported from Taunton by JOHN ROSE of London Merchant… Bernard Loveridge (from archive.org link here)

Bernard, John and William Loveridge Rebelled Against King James II – Transported To Barbados,  Sold As Slaves In 1686

Long ago I learned that it is a very small world for Bajans. It doesn’t matter where you go or what you do, sooner or later you will run into a Barbados connection. A few years ago I was stuck in the Philippines waiting for parts when I stumbled onto a well-attended cockfight in one of the little transient towns surrounding Mactan-Cebu airport. When I told one of the local businessmen that I was from Barbados, he smiled and said “My mother was from Barbados!” The Philippines are a very racially-mixed society but I would never have known that this fellow had Bajan in his background from looking at him. As he told me the details about how his then-passed mother made her way to the Philippines and married a local in the early 1960’s, I had to smile at the old saying that wherever you go, another Barbadian has been there before you.

I remembered that meeting in the Philippines when I came across some online information about a soap maker named Bernard Loveridge who was “lucky” to be transported to Barbados and sold into slavery after participating in the Monmouth Rebellion against King James II in 1685. I say “lucky” because many of Loveridge’s fellow rebels were drawn and quartered or boiled alive in tar instead of being sold as slaves.

In jest I suggest that perhaps our friend Adrian Loveridge loves Barbados as much as he does because of something deeply ingrained in his family line. After all, considering the alternatives, Barbados must have looked very good to Bernard Loveridge at the time!

The following is taken from the book “The Monmouth Rebels 1685” (Compiled by W. MacDonald Wigfield, Somerset Record Society, C/O Local History Library, Taunton Castle, Taunton, Somerset 1985, ISBN 0 901732 27 3, Alan Sutton Publishing Limited, Gloucester.)…

The Monmouth Rebellion

Between 11 June 1685, when the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme in Dorset (from Holland) with a party of just over eighty men, and 6 July, when his army (estimated at between 3200 and 7000) was defeated at Sedgemoor, a significant proportion of the population of West Dorset, East Devon and Somerset rose up in arms against the Government of James II.    The level of support for the cause resulted in the government’s savage treatment of the rebels, and also was the reason why so many rebels were able to disappear into a countryside ready to shelter them.

Many factors contributed to the rebellion, but it seems the major reason people got involved was the lack of freedom of worship of protestant nonconformists.

The book comprises a list of almost 4000 names of rebels, composed from various lists, some made in preparation for the Assizes conducted in the West Country in September and October 1685.  The Assizes were headed by the country’s most brutal judge, Lord Chief Justice George, Baron Jeffreys of Wem.   Public hangings and subsequent gruesome burning of entrails, quartering of corpses,  boiling them in salt and dipping them in pitch for long-term exhibition was designed  to strike awe into the West Country.

An alternative was transportation.  By the beginning of August, courtiers with  business interests in the West Indies began bidding for the rebels. The Secretary of  State wrote to Jeffreys early in September with his instructions:

200 were to be given to Sir Philip Howard, Governor of Jamaica
200 to Sir Richard White
100 each to Sir William Booth, a Barbados merchant
Sir James Kendall, later Governor of Barbados
Sir Jerome Nipho, the Queen’s Italian Secretary
Sir William Stapleton, Governor of the Leeward Islands
Sir Christopher Musgrave.

These grantees were to take the prisoners from custody within 10 days to ‘some of his Majesties southern plantations, viz. Jamaica, Barbados, or any of the Leeward Islands in America’, and to keep them there for 10 years as indentured servants.   A total of 890 prisoners were handed over.   A change of government at home in 1689 forced a revision of policy towards the  prisoners, and in February 1690 free pardons were issued.  Governor Kendall of  Barbados, and others were reluctant to let their prisoners go…

How About It Adrian… Are Any Of These Loveridge Scalawags Your Ancestors?

I found the following Loveridge persons were transported to Barbados…

“R WILLIAM BOOTH’S Receipt for the Prisoners within mencon’d on the Account of JAMES KENDALL Esq r – to be sent to Barbados. Prisoners in DorcJiester Gaole to bee Transported: Bernard Loveridge, John Loveridge, William Loveridge, Louericlge, stv Loveridge

EXCELLENT ONLINE SOURCE

The original lists of persons of quality; emigrants; religious exiles; political rebels; serving men sold for a term of years; apprentices; children stolen; maidens pressed; and others who went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 : with their ages and the names of the ships in which they embarked, and other interesting particulars; from mss. preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty’s Public Record Office, England (1874) LINK HERE

This BFP article was written by Robert

47 Comments

Filed under Barbados, History, Slavery

47 responses to “Adrian Loveridge’s Traitor and Criminal Ancestors Sold As Slaves In Barbados?

  1. Adrian Loveridge

    Robert,

    What a great article.

    Yes! I would imagine they are ALL my relatives.

    Virtually all my family originate from the West Country of England and for hundreds of years we
    were practising Quakers, so supporting Monmouth would not have been a problem.

    But, Robert, you have to promise me that you are not going to tell Mr. George Payne, as remember he removed me as the democratically elected Chairman of the Small Hotels Group for not being sufficiently ‘indigenous’.

    After 323 years of Loveridge’s being on Barbados does that mean I can get my job back?

    Do the records show when the first PAYNE landed on Barbados?

    ********************

    BFP says,

    Hi Adrian… I just this second discovered a wonderful book of all transported persons online. I’ll be changing the post in a minute to reflect that. You will then be able to search online for your Payne family to see if they were transported for being criminals.

    UPDATED: I searched for Payne in the lists accessed by clicking the photo at the top of the article, but it appears that aside from some burial records, the only Payne I can find in this record was a Slave MASTER. … ie: an owner of slaves.

    Adrian, I wonder if Mr. Payne’s ancestors owned your ancestors?

    Quite the family you have there, Adrian! 😉

  2. BFP

    BFP says,

    Hi Adrian… I just this second discovered a wonderful book of all transported persons online. I’ll be changing the post in a minute to reflect that. You will then be able to search online for your Payne family to see if they were transported for being criminals.

    UPDATED: I searched for Payne in the lists accessed by clicking the photo at the top of the article, but it appears that aside from some burial records, the only Payne I can find in this record was a Slave MASTER. … ie: an owner of slaves.

    Adrian, I wonder if Mr. Payne’s ancestors owned your ancestors?

    Quite the family you have there, Adrian! 😉

  3. reality check

    Barbadians don’t want to hear this.

    UWI has convinced them all that only Africans were oppressed and therefore anyone that looks “whitish” is fair game for abuse and “tiefing”.

    The old concepts of hard work and integrity have gone out the window.

    Its much easier to create a con game where the voters elect people who “tief” the publics money through lack of open tendering, no public audits, no free speech, no ITAL, no FOI, no accountability and no Rule of Law.

    Running a small hotel and promoting Barbados on every occasion counts for little Adrian. Your family did the King ( those in authority ) wrong and your still paying for it.

  4. 199

    Adrian, it seems that you were privileged from the start!! Your people were soon pardoned whilst mine had to wait a further 200 years to obtain their freedom!! In that circumstance, I think that any resentment is well, understandable!!

  5. Jinx

    199,

    Have you ever heard of William Wilberforce?

  6. J

    Dear BFP:

    You wrote “I searched for Payne in the lists…the only Payne I can find in this record was a Slave MASTER. … ie: an owner of slaves. Adrian, I wonder if Mr. Payne’s ancestors owned your ancestors?”

    Dear BFP: Are you just IGNORANT or are you mean spirited? If you are IGNORANT there is no need to remain so. There are plenty of books which discuss the transAtlantic slave trade. You can find them in libraries, book stores and at universities. In 2009 make it you vow to read widely about things that you have never read about before.

    However I suspect you are MEAN SPIRITED but in 2009 you can correct that also. Transatlantic slavery is not a subject for jokes. Juist as the Holocaust is not a subject for jokes. The people who were forcibly separated from their families and brough here were REAL HUMAN BEINGS, their suffering was real, and it went on for many generations. Those of us who are desended from those who were enslaved are still bearing ghe consequences of the SINS committed against our ancestors by your ancestors.

    My family has known Mr. Payne’s family for many generations. I knew his parents. I can assure you that they were good decent hard working Bajan people. There is no reason to believe that Mr. Payne’s ancestor’s enclaved Mr. Loveridge’s ancestors. And for BFP to suggest such a thing is PERVERSE.

    **************************

    BFP says,

    My my my, aren’t we touchy today, J?

    The truth is that nobody really knows who owned whom on this island. Not really. We’re all a bunch of mongrels no matter the colour of skin. We, like Adrian, found it humourous that Adrian was fired by Payne for not being indigenous enough, but as it turns out the Loveridges were here as slaves in the 1600’s! And in the same book the only Payne was a purchaser of slaves, not a slave himself.

    Surely you can see the irony and have a little chuckle at that?

    As to our knowledge of the historical trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the current trans-Atlantic slave trade, we invite you to read some of our archives before you continue play high and mighty by implying that BFP somehow doesn’t know or care about slavery. It is you who are unfamiliar with our writings on slavery.

    AND BYE THE WAY… My skin is way darker than yours is J. Way darker. Tons darker… so don’t try this “you’re a whitey you don’t understand” racist crap with me.

  7. Juris

    J, you may not be as correct and as fair to BFP (Robert) as you think. While it is highly likely that George Payne’s ancestors took their name from the slave master Payne; it is possible given the circumstances of the time that there might be a blood link between the slave master Payne and one of George’s ancestors….and maybe, one of AL’s ancestors too. Don’t discount the possibility.

  8. Duppy Lizard

    @199

    I trust your resentment also extends to the kings of Dahomey and similiar countries in west Africa who were complicit in the slave trade.

  9. Adrian Loveridge

    J,

    Come on, be fair!

    Wasn’t Bernard Loveridge forcefully seperated from his family and did you not read what happened to the Monmouth Rebels that were not so lucky as to be deported and sold into slavery?

    NO-ONE can justify slavery, whoever it is applied to.

    You chose to mention the Holocaust. Millions of right thinking people also opposed this abomination too, and paid the ultimate price attempting to elimate it, including my family members.

  10. Hants

    Ethnically, Barbados’ population was dominated by descendants of African slaves. At emancipation in the late 1830s, the size of the slave population was approximately 83,000, three times that of the entire slave population in the Windward Islands. By the 1980s, distribution of ethnic groups was typical of the Eastern Caribbean; 90 percent of the population was black, 5 percent mulatto, and 5 percent white.

    Race largely defined social position in Barbados. The majority of whites still held a disproportionate amount of economic wealth in the 1980s and significantly influenced national politics through their control of business enterprises. Blacks constituted both the middle and the lower classes.

  11. J

    Dear Adrian:

    You wrote “Come on, be fair! Wasn’t Bernard Loveridge forcefully seperated from his family ”

    Yes indeed he was and that was wrong. Did you hear me justify that wrong-doing? But you were already here at BFP and more than adequately defending yourself and the Loveridge’s.

    You wrote your response and I wrote mine.

    Fair is fair.

    And to BFP. No I do not think that it is funny when the primary beneficiaries of the Transatlantic slave trade make jokes about slavery. Less we forget some people benefitted from the slave terade, and millions of people suffered and died. Neither George’s family or mine benefitted. So no. I do not find it funny.

    Just as I would not think it funny if a German made jokes about the Holocaust.

    **********************

    BFP says,

    We made the joke, not Adrian. And it was not about the transatlantic slave trade, it was about the fact that Adrian was fired for not being “indigenous” enough when his family has been here for hundreds of years and came here as slaves.

    We think you are too touchy by half. Betcha my skin is way darker than yours. Way darker.

    So what?

    We’ll just have to agree to disagree.

    Bye the way… Adrian was probably fired by Payne more for his skin colour than anything else. That too is reality here on this island – where folks with J’s attitude still blame the skin colour of the person sitting next to them for their own personal failures.

  12. J

    BFP wrote “The truth is that nobody really knows who owned whom on this island.”

    Dear BFP:

    My grandmother was born in 1879. I knew her very well. She died when I was 16. She was an entirely African woman born in Barbados. My eldest sister who is VERY MUCH ALIVE knew our grandmother’s mother.. She too was an African woman born in Barbados.

    If you want to talk nonsense at least have the decency to wait until those of us who know the truth have died.

    ************************

    BFP says,

    Perhaps your grandmother knew her racial heritage accurately – but perhaps not. Maybe she only believed she knew it accurately.

    As I said, we’re mostly a nation of mongrels on this island whether you like it or not. Your racist attitude is becoming less common but is still alive and well. Gosh I loved it last election when the BLP was cautioning everyone that they shouldn’t vote DLP because the whites were going to vote for the DLP!

    Your way is ending J. You just don’t know it yet. We younger people are finding a new way and we are doing well at it. You won’t recognize attitudes on this rock in 20 years.

  13. 199

    J, first this and now the Bizzy Williams sympathy has me wondering whether BFP is a white organisation or what?!! There certainly, seems to be a lot of sympathy/concern for our white friends emanating from here!!

    *******************

    BFP says,

    yadda, yadda, yadda. Typical. Say a positive comment about a white person on a blog and you’re immediately branded as white. Say it in person and get called an oreo or a house n.

    199 – you and J’s racist attitudes will be gone in 20 years despite everything your generation does to propagate your worldview. You just don’t know it yet.

  14. J

    Look BFP my grandmother was as black as the s of spades. She wasn’t a mongrel. Are you trying to tell me that I don’t know what I saw with my own eyes?

    And explain to me if you can what is racist about saying that my grandmother was a black, distinctly African woman.

    Yes 199, BFP is a bunch of white youths and wanna be be white hangers-on. They have lost some of the traditional priviledges based on skin colour and they feel aggrieved, excluded and have problems with legitimate authority, but only when such authority is exercised by black people.

  15. J

    And no BFP:

    I won’t be gone in 20 years time. In my family we live to be a 100 or more. You will have to put up with me for a very, very long time.

    I ain’t dead yet.

    *********************

    BFP says,

    Calm down girl. We didn’t say you would be dead. We said your attitudes would be. Take time to read before going off on a tizzy, ok?

  16. RRRicky

    See how quickly J and 199 condemn people of their own race who aren’t in lockstep with their opinions. If you don’t share J’s and 199’s opinions you can’t be black!

    BFP is right about the generations.

    J and 199 generation gave us Jessie Jackson.

    BFP generation gave us Obama. Big difference.

  17. Red Lake Lassie

    199 say “J, first this and now the Bizzy Williams sympathy has me wondering whether BFP is a white organisation or what?!!”

    How DARE BFP say something nice about a white person!

    LOL. 199 you are one seriously warped and racist individual.

  18. Optimist Prime

    “Nobody” asked me anything but the victims of the slave trade were the young and healthy; thus cheating Africa of this valuable and productive human resource.

    Because of that, its population stagnated and those who remained were either too old to reproduce ot too young to start.

    The economy of the continet went into decline as its main export became human beings. It has not yet recoverd.

    Are we in danger of moving towards a more authoritarian society, one prone to arbitrariness and governed not by a spirit of enlightenment, but one ordered by the “strong”?

    Should the style and shape of our affairs and our response to challenges be bereth of any intellectual sustenance?

    You would think that an economic hurricane is not approaching!

  19. ACE

    What is the “s” of spades? Does this ignorant fool who suffers from verbal diarrhoea mean the “ace of spades”?

  20. J

    RRRicky wrote “See how quickly J and 199 condemn people of their own race who aren’t in lockstep with their opinions. If you don’t share J’s and 199’s opinions you can’t be black!…BFP generation gave us Obama. Big difference.”

    Mr. Obama was raised my parents of my generation.”

    Your generation has not yet produced anything of worth.

    And point out to me where exactly have I condemned people of my own race (or any other for that matter)

    Can you also point out to me exactly where I said anything about who could or could not be black?

    I did note however (and I repeat) that some people seem to resent when LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY is exercised by BLACK peopple.

  21. J

    Dear Ace:

    You got my message did you not?

  22. RRRicky

    J for god’s sake everything you wrote was an anti-white diatribe starting with your assumption that BFPmust be white cause they disagree with wit you. And blacks who are “hangers on” with BFP are wanta be whites.

    “Yes 199, BFP is a bunch of white youths and wanna be be white hangers-on”

    I agree with RLL that 199 is a seriously warped and racist individual an I say you are too.

    You think you can tell grama’s racial ancestry is pure because her skin is dark? You know nothing you old racist fool.

  23. John

    We have to remember that Government Ministers in Barbados swear an oath of allegience to the Monarch of England.

    Bernard Loveridge was convicted for waging war against the Monarch, albeit several centuries ago.

    Maybe Mr. Payne was reading and came across this information and his oath of office compelled him to deal with any Loveridges that crossed his path on behalf of the Monarch!!

    On another note, I checked familysearch.org for Loveridge’s in Barbados and came across one, a Thomasine Loveridge marrying Robert Law in St. Michael in 1717.

    Baptismal records aslo on familysearch.org show thay had one child, Catherine Law. They may have had others as not all children were baptised at the time.

    I also checked another source and found a Mrs. Catherine Loveridge stood as Godmother to the infant Catherine Law at baptism.

    Could not find any Loveridge marriages and was unable to trace Catherine Law after her baptism in 1717 on familysearch.org. It is possible that Catherine Loveridge may have been the wife of a Loveridge who was “Barbadosed” in the 1680’s.

    There is a book called “To Hell or Barbados” by Sean O’Callaghan about an earlier period of our history and what became of the Irish who were shipped to Barbados as convicts in the period 1652-59.

    The book is dedicated “To the Irish men, women and children who lie in unhallowed ground in the sugar cane fields of Barbados”.

  24. CENTIPEDE

    Oh my. BFP: what you trying to do? upset de apple cart? ONLY black people were sold into slavery in the West Indies. Don’t you know that?

    Anyhow ~ from way back in Chaucer’s time we heard “the truth will out.”

    In fact – it’s out there – BUT like all the shenanigans associated with the invention of Christianity and the fabrication of the bible … Bajans don’t want to know.

    If there was a way to shoot a person through the Internet, BFP ~ you would be pushing grass in Westbury, long time.

  25. reality check

    I rest my case

    Its much easier to lick ones wounds and feel sorry for oneself than roll up ones sleeves and get on with making a better and more just society.

    Barbados has had conduct of its own affairs for almost two generations.

    We had an election approximately a year ago that heralded fundamental change.

    When are Barbadians going to see the forensic audits, ministerial code and ITAL they were promised?

  26. Red Lake Lassie

    Reality Check, don’t you know? The Thompson government said forensic audits, ministerial code and ITAL would be done within three months of the election. Three months has long passed so it must be done! 🙂

  27. J

    Dear Centipede:

    You wrote “If there was a way to shoot a person through the Internet, BFP ~ you would be pushing grass in Westbury, long time.”

    I can assure you that nobody wants to sh**t BFP. People shoot those who are percieved as threats.

    Nobody is threatened by the intellectual lightweights at BFP.

  28. RRRicky

    J is right about nobody being threatened by the intellectual lightweights at BFP. Just ask the BLP, the Barbados Free Press didn’t bother them one bit last election! 😉

  29. J

    Dear Adrian:

    You wrote “Millions of right thinking people also opposed this abomination too, and paid the ultimate price attempting to elimate it, including my family members.”

    My own father did his part during World War 2. To do so he VOLUNTARILY left his beautiful young wife and 2 children in June 1941 and did not get back to Barbados until August 1944.

  30. J

    Dear Reality Check:

    You wrote “We had an election approximately a year ago that heralded fundamental change.”

    It is time to stop the lotta long talk and show uS REAL and POSITVE change.

  31. PiedPiper

    J, You can’t find some crocheting or knitting tuh do?

  32. 199

    ‘That’s right’, BFP!! ‘The blacks alone are racist’!! ‘The whites are n’t racist, at all’!! At this point I’ll use my favourite Jamaican, retort which is!! “If a laugh a dead”!!

    Laaaaaaddddddddddddddd!!!!

    If u want to b rid of racism I suggest speaking to your white friends first!! They, I remind u, r the people who have a problem with race!! In my experience, and certainly in my own case, my own racism, as u describe it, is nothing more than a DIRECT, REACTION TO THEIR RACISM!! BFP, maybe you’ve been circulating around the whites for so long that you’ve lost your sense of ‘racial-compass’, i.e. knowing precisely, who u are, where you’re from and the influences which got you where u are – unless you’ve a greater, appreciation of your ‘European-heritage’ than of your african one!!

    I’m not telling u not to compliment the whites!! I do so all the time (or, at least, some of the time) but your obscession seems a bit sickening, to say the least!!

    **************************

    BFP Says

    Oh, sorry massa, that I am not fully dark enough to your liking. Some of us are, but one married someone with lighter skin. One of their children is dark enough for your taste but the other is much lighter. What are they to do? Oh Woe! Woe!

    You racist.

  33. 199

    Duppy Lizard, my answer to your question is, “yes, it does, and it’s even more, resentful towards them”!!

    Jinx, “thank you, and yes, I do know very well, who Wilberforce is and that his successors are probably, just as racist as any whites, today”!! Saying, “thank you” to him must be a bit like the lion saying “thank you” to the man who’s kept him locked up, half-fed and worked to death for the last ten years but now it’s glad to be free!! So, yes, I say, “thank you, Mr Wilberforce”, which is what I’m sure ur wanting me to say!! (r u white, by the way!!) but, I’D BE A LOT MORE GRATEFUL, IF YOUR PEOPLE HAD N’T ENSLAVED ME, UNJUSTLY, IN THE FIRST PLACE!! So, just how grateful should I be, Jinx!!

    *******************

    Hants says:

    The majority of whites still held a disproportionate amount of economic wealth in the 1980s and significantly influenced national politics through their control of business enterprises.

    *******************

    That’s right, Hants!! And the idiot-blacks allowed them to!!

    ********************

    J, says:

    Yes 199, BFP is a bunch of white youths and wanna be be white hangers-on. They have lost some of the traditional priviledges based on skin colour and they feel aggrieved, excluded and have problems with legitimate authority, but only when such authority is exercised by black people.

    ****************

    You certainly, gave it to them, J!! However, d man say e black but, maybe, as u said, “he’s a white-lover”!!

    Laaadd!! Good luck to e!!

    *****************

    RRRicky, I in waising time wid u, boa!! – nor, u, Red Lake Lassie!!

    ********************

    ACE said:

    January 2, 2009 at 10:22 pm

    What is the “s” of spades? Does this ignorant fool who suffers from verbal diarrhoea mean the “ace of spades”?

    *********************

    ACE, u must b a genius to calculate that she meant, “ace of spades”!! R u white!!

    Lord a mercy!! The boy’s so clever!!

    Dear BFP, please treat us now, to the exploits of some BLACK, Barbadian business-people, if the whites have allowed them to be any!! I tired of hearing about WHITE people, in BARBADOS!!

    *************************
    *************************
    ************************

    BFP says,

    Thank you 199 for your racist diatribe on this and other comments. All of us need to see that once in a while no matter our skin colour. We need to see it to remind ourselves about where we have been, where we are going, and who can get us where we want to go as a society.

    You are finished (again) with using BFP for your racist venom.

  34. J. Payne

    There’s a next site I’ve seen crop up too for tracing ancestors in Barbados…

    http://www.plantations.bb/

  35. quills

    For those who are interested in the challenge…

    From an article entitled:
    “White Slavery and Indentured Servitude in the Age of Imperialism, Part 1”

    “Although it is an inarguable fact that Africans were cruelly enslaved en masse by many European empires, most notably the British and French, as well as within the American republic as forced labor, there was also, however, a far less commonly known and rarely mentioned dimension of White, in particular Irish, slavery which also occurred as a consequence of empire. Much like many unfortunate Africans, the collective memory of the Irish of this era of British imperialism is one of persecution, dispossession, enslavement, and other untold sufferings. The brief but bloody reign of Oliver Cromwell following the English Civil War gave birth to an era of brutal oppression and exploitation of the subject Irish population. From 1652 until 1659 alone, it is estimated that well over 50,000 men, women, and children of Irish descent were forcibly transported to British imperial colonies in Barbados and Virginia to serve as slave labor in the plantation economy.(4) Other prisoners of war, as well as political dissenters, taken from conquered regions of England, Wales, and Scotland were also sent into permanent exile as slaves to Barbados. This essentially enabled Cromwell to purge the subject population of any perceived opposing elements, as well as to provide a lucrative source of profit through their sale to plantation owners.(5) The extent to which White prisoners were transported to Barbados was so great, that by 1701, out of the roughly 25,000 slaves present on the island’s plantations, about 21,700 of them were of European descent.(6) Later, as the African slave trade began to expand and flourish, the Irish slave population of Barbados began to drastically recede over time, due in part to the fact that many were worked to death early on in their arrival and also as a result of racial intermixing with Black slaves.”

    The article in it’s entirety can be found at:
    http://www.wvwnews.net/story.php?id=396

  36. queenam

    @Reality Check – it is obvious that you have never taken so much as a level 2 History course at the UWI or you would not have made such an uneducated statement. Check HIST 2003 by prof. Alvin Thompson and tell us if your statement and his teachings compliment each other

  37. J

    Dear Pied Pioper:

    Why should I crochet or knit? I live in Barbados remember. As I sit here blogging, the temperture is about 26 degrees celsius and there ia a ncie breeze and ALL my windows and doors are open. I may shut up the house at 2 a.m.

    I DON”T need warm clothing. I ain’t in the great white north.

    Been there. Done that. Don’t want to do it again.

    Don’t need to knit or crochet. Don’t know how to do it. Don’t plan to learn.

  38. J

    BFP wrote “It is you who are unfamiliar with our writings on slavery.”

    Indeed. And it is because your writings are not important.

  39. J

    Dear BFP you wrote “where folks with J’s attitude still blame the skin colour of the person sitting next to them for their own personal failures.”

    What personal failures ya talking ’bout??

  40. J

    RRRicky wrote “You think you can tell grama’s racial ancestry is pure because her skin is dark?”

    Yes.

    Do you think that the Queen Elizabeth’s racial ancestry is pure because she is white?

    For the record I do not believe in racial purity because than I would have to also belive in racial impurity.

    There are no pure nor impure races.

    There are only human beings.

  41. A very thorough article. That presents an interesting history. It must have taken some time to build this fact base.

  42. Avatar Gurl

    Oh, lovely.

    I wonder what a mixed person would have to say in this scenario.

    Any mixed people out there…come on, let’s hear you!!!!

  43. Sargeant

    Peter Simmons in his latest Nation column uses the word “mulatto” to describe Lewis Hamilton and Barack Obama.

    Wuhloss!!! Is that how he describes Tom Adams and David Thompson?

    Curious choice of word since it is not much in current usage except in certain quarters hostile to black people and considering many people think it offensive given the etymology (Portugese = mule and barren).

    How much longer before we see terms like Quadroon; Octoroon etc

    Simmons should consult his Thesaurus more

  44. Chicago

    Racial classifications are a double-edged sword. Once you start noticing race instead of people you have a huge problem of perception vs. reality. Discussion borders on the absurd.

    Peter Simmons is hardly dark himself but probably considers himself “black”. Africans would consider him to be “coloured” maybe closer to white. In Chicago we love to celebrate our African roots but skin-lightening creams and hair straightener are what moves at Walmart.

    When government grants or affirmative action contracts are handed out we proudly put our race down on the application and take the money or work. At the local Rotary Club we don’t talk about how easy it is to run a business when government work goes to your business instead of the competition because you are Afro-American. Obama is black, Obama is mulatto. I’m not sure what either term means anymore.

  45. mysay

    Looka wha a lil history can do for my skin colour doh! Wuhloss…talk…talk…talk on bozee… Wunnuh mekking money in hey? Show me whey to collec.